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Reproduktion, etc. nur mit Genehmigung!
TIME FRAME RECONSTRUCTION
A MEMORY AID
( Covering Leuven's own span of time ... )
( Rahmenbedingung ist Leuvens eigene Zeitspanne ... )
"Three Holy Clauses blocking Rapid Progress" an installation by Reinhard Leuven (1980s)
January 30, 1948 Mohandas Gandhi is assassinated.
May 14, 1948 Israel declares itsself to be an independent state (on the next day Arab League countries declare war on Israel; this war "officially" ends in January 1949).
June 21, 1948 Germany changes its currency from Reichsmark to Deutsche Mark (Währungsreform).
June 24, 1948 The Berlin Blockade starts. The Allied Air Lift ensures the survival of Berlin.
September 1, 1948 First session of Germany's Parliamentary Council (Parlamentarischer Rat).
December 10, 1948 The General Assembly of the United Nations adopts and proclaims the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Nobel Prize in Literature, 1948: T. S. Eliot
Nobel Prize in Physics, 1948: Patrick M. S. Blackett (development of the Wilson cloud chamber)
"Cybernetics" by Norbert Wiener is published in 1948.
Orville Wright - aviation pioneer - dies on January 30, 1948.
Formation of NATO
May 5, 1949 Formation of the European Council
September 20, 1949 First West German Federal Government convenes.
"Braking History is Impossible" wire sculpture by Reinhard Leuven (1980s)
June 25, 1950 North Korean troops invade South Korea (the Korean War ends on July 27, 1953).
Mohammed Mossadegh nationalizes the British-owned oil industry in Persia.
November 6, 1952 First American hydrogen bomb is exploded at Eniwetok atoll.
February 28, 1953 Description of the DNA double helix by James Watson and Francis Crick. They demonstrated the double helix structure with a wire and cardboard model. Their work was based on data developed by Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin.
March 5, 1953 Stalin dies.
May 29, 1953 Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reach the summit of Mt. Everest.
June 17, 1953 Uprising of workers in the German Democratic Republic. The uprising is put down by Russian troops.
Nobel Prize in Literature, 1954: Ernest Hemingway
August 8, 1955 The Algerian War begins.
Disneyland is opened in Anaheim, California.
October - November 1956 Uprising in Hungary, - in the end put down by Russian troops.
October 1957, - first satellite launched (Sputnik I).
Vivian Ernest Fuchs leads the first successful Trans-Antarctic Expedition.
January 3, 1959 Alaska joins the USA as the 49th state.
July 4, 1959 Hawaii joins the USA as the 50th state.
September 14, 1959 The unmanned lunar-probe Luna 2 crash-lands on the moon.
Christmas 1959 The Cologne synagogue is smeared with swastikas.
"Bogeyman's Viewbox" imaging by Reinhard Leuven, 2004
May 1, 1960 Pilot Francis Gary Powers and his U-2 spy-plane are shot down over Russia.
May 23, 1960 Eichmann is captured in Argentina.
John F. Kennedy defeats Richard M. Nixon (then vice-president) in the American national elections. (During the election campaign first live TV-debate between presidential candidates.)
Echo I, first communication satellite, is put into orbit.
January 1961 Patrice Lumumba is murdered.
April 12, 1961 Juri Gagarin is the first man in space.
August 13, 1961 The German Democratic Republic begins to build the Wall.
Bay of Pigs
October 1962 The Cuba Crisis.
November 22, 1963 Assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
August 2 and 4, 1964 Two American destroyers are attacked by the North Vietnamese navy in the Gulf of Tongkin. - On August 10 the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution is passed in Washington, D.C..
August 11, 1965 Watts Riots in South Central Los Angeles (lasting six days).
November 4, 1965 Albert Schweitzer dies.
February 3, 1966 The unmanned lunar-probe Luna 9 lands on the moon.
June 2, 1967 The student Benno Ohnesorg is shot dead by a policeman during an anti-Shah of Persia demonstration in Berlin.
October 9, 1967 Ernesto "Che" Guevara is killed in Bolivia.
January to August 1968 The Prague Spring, - finally put down by Russian troops in August 1968.
April 4, 1968 Assassination of Martin Luther King.
April 11, 1968 In Berlin the student leader Rudi Dutschke is shot at and seriously wounded.
May 11, 1968 A major demonstration in Bonn, West Germany, against new "emergency laws".
June 4, 1968 Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy.
July 20, 1969 First manned landing on the moon (Apollo 11).
September 1969 In West Germany Willy Brandt is elected as Chancellor.
Detail of collage case "The future of history does not devour itsself" by Reinhard Leuven (1990s)
May 1, 1970 Cambodia is invaded by U.S. troops (during demonstrations against this invasion four students are shot by National Guardsmen at Kent State University, Ohio, on May 4, 1970).
Publication of the "Pentagon Papers".
West German Chancellor Willy Brandt receives the Nobel Peace Prize.
February, 1972 President Nixon visits the People's Republic of China and meets Mao.
May 1972 In West Germany the socalled "Red Army Faction" (RAF) carries out bomb attacks gainst various targets, including major American military installations in Frankfurt and Heidelberg (four soldiers are killed).
June 1972 The lead-figures of the RAF are arrested in West Germany.
June 17, 1972 Watergate Burglary.
September 5, 1972 Terrorist attack against Israeli athletes taking part in the Olympic Games in Munich.
Nobel Prize in Literature, 1972: Heinrich Böll.
September 11, 1973 Government of Salvadore Allende in Chile is overthrown.
October 6, 1973 Start of the Yom Kippur War.
May 6, 1974 Willy Brandt resigns as Chancellor of West Germany.
November 9, 1974 One of the leading RAF figures (Holger Meins) dies in prison in Germany as the result of a hungerstrike.
November 11, 1972 In West Berlin a high ranking judge is murdered as revenge for Meins' death.
August 8, 1974 American President Richard M. Nixon resigns because of Watergate. (On September 8, 1974, Nixon receives a pardon from his successor Gerald R. Ford.)
February 1975 In West Berlin the Christian Democrat politician Lorenz is kidnapped. Several West German terrorists are set free in exchange for Lorenz.
April 1975 West German terrorists attack the West German embassy in Stockholm. Members of the embassy staff are taken as hostages (two of them are killed). Two terrorists die also.
April 30, 1975 South Vietnam capitulates.
During April 1975 the Khmer Rouge under Pol Pot take over Cambodia.
May 8, 1976 West German terrorist Ulrike Meinhof is found dead in her prison cell.
June 27, 1976 Palestinian terrorists hijack an Air France plane to Entebbe. On July 4 an Israeli commando unit ends the hijacking, killing all seven terrorists.
November 2, 1976 In the USA Jimmy Carter wins presidential election.
January 21, 1977 President Carter grants pardon to Vietnam draft evaders.
April 7, 1977 West German chief state prosecutor Sigfried Buback is murdered by the RAF.
July 30, 1977 The CEO of the West German Dresdner Bank, Jürgen Ponto, is murdered by the RAF.
September 5, 1977 The West German president of the German Employers Association and of the German Industrial Association, Schleyer, is kidnapped by the RAF.
September 21, 1977 Nuclear non-proliferation act signed by 15 countries (including the USA and the USSR).
October 13, 1977 Palestinian terrorists hijack a West German Lufthansa jet in support of the aims of the Schleyer-kidnapping. The captain of the Lufthansa-crew is shot dead.
October 18, 1977 A West German commando unit raids the hijacked Lufthansa jet in Mogadishu and frees the hostages.
October 18, 1977 Three of the leading West German RAF terrorists who were to be pressed free by the Schleyer-kidnapping commit suicide in the high-security-tract of Stuttgart-Stammheim prison.
October 19,1977 Schleyer is murdered by his kidnappers.
March 16, 1978 Aldo Moro kidnapped by Red Brigades in Italy.
September 1978 Camp David Accord signed by Egypt's Sadat and Israel's Begin (initiated by President Carter).
January 7, 1979 End of Pol Pot regime in Cambodia.
January 16, 1979 The Shah flees from Iran. On February 1, 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini comes to power.
May 3, 1979 Margret Thatcher comes to power in Great Britain.
August 27, 1979 Earl Mountbattan killed by IRA.
November 4, 1979 US embassy is taken over by Iranian militants.
December 27, 1979 The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan.
Collage "Changing Freedoms" by Reinhard Leuven, 1989
August 18 - 21, 1980 First solo ascent of Mt. Everest without oxygen by Reinhold Messner.
September 19, 1980 War between Iraq and Iran begins (lasts till 1988)
November 4, 1980 In the USA Ronald Reagan wins the presidential election.
December 8, 1980 John Lennon is shot dead in New York City.
January 20, 1981 Between the USA and Iran agreement is reached to free the embassy hostages.
AIDS virus is discovered.
August 1981 RAF bomb attack against the headquarters of the U.S. Air Force in Ramstein, West Germany.
September 1981 An attack by West German RAF terrorists against the American General Frederik Kroesen in Heidelberg fails.
October 10, 1981 Approximately 250,000 people demonstrate for peace in the West German capital Bonn.
April 2, 1982 Falklands War starts between Argentina and Great Britain (till June 15, 1982).
October 1, 1983 Helmut Kohl becomes Chancellor of West Germany.
October 23, 1983 Terrorist bomb attack kills 237 Americans in Beirut.
October 25, 1983 Invasion of Grenada.
Orwell's vision is well on the way to become reality.
October 31, 1984 India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassinated.
November 7, 1984 US President Ronald Reagan is reelected.
December 3, 1984 Chemical plant accident in Bhopal, India, causes the death of about 2000 people and causes injuries to about 150,000.
February 1, 1985 RAF terrorist murder in West Germany of Dr. Ernst Zimmermann, CEO of the German MTU company.
March 11, 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power in the Soviet Union.
August 8, 1985 RAF murder of the American soldier Pimental and consequent bomb attackagainst the Rhein-Main Air Base in Frankfurt, West Germany.
November 19, 1985 Reagan and Gorbachev hold summit meeting.
February 7, 1986 Haitian dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier flees to France.
February 28, 1986 Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme is assassinated.
April 26, 1986 Chernobyl
July 9, 1986 RAF terrorist murder of Karl-Heinz Beckurts (and his driver Eckhard Groppler), a senior executive officer of the West German Siemens company.
October 10, 1986 RAF terrorist murder of the Ministerial Director Gerald von Braunmühl of the West German Foreign Ministry.
May 17, 1987 An Iraqi missile hits an American Navy frigate, killing 37 crew members. On the next day Saddam Hussein apologizes.
Summer 1987 Investigations of the Iran-Contra affair start in the USA.
July 3, 1988 Iranian commercial airliner is accidentally shot down by a US navy ship killing 290 passengers and crew.
September 20, 1988 A RAF terrorist attack against Hans Tietmeyer, a West German state secretary, fails.
November 8, 1988 George Bush wins the presidential election in the USA.
December 21, 1988 A bomb explodes in a PanAm 747 jet over Lockerbie, Scotland killing 270 persons (all passengers and crew and persons on the ground).
March 24, 1989 The tanker Exxon Valdez accident in Prince William Sound in Alaska.
April 19, 1988 First huge student demonstration on Tiananmen Square in Beijing. (June 4, 1988: massacre by troops on Tiananmen Square; thousands of people killed.)
November 11, 1989 Fall of the German Democratic Republic's Wall.
November 30, 1989 End of communist domination in CSSR.
November 30, 1989 RAF terrorists murder Alfred Herrhausen, chief executive spokesman of the West German Deutsche Bank.
December 15, 1989 End of communist rule in Romania. (Mr. & Mrs. Ceaucescu liquidated on December 25, 1989.)
December 20, 1989 US invades Panama in order to arrest General Noriega.
Reinhard Leuven working on "A Long Story", November 1991
January 22, 1990 Communist rule ends in Yugoslavia.
February 7, 1990 Communists lose dominant role in the Soviet Union.
February 11, 1990 Nelson Mandela leaves prison in South Africa (after almost 28 years).
June 27, 1990 A RAF-terrorist attack against West German state-secretary Hans Neusel of the Ministry of the Interior fails.
October 3, 1990 Reunification of West and East Germany.
January 15, 1991 First Persian Gulf war begins (ends April 3, 1991).
February 13, 1991 RAF-rifle attack against the American embassy in Bonn, Germany.
April 1, 1991 Karsten Rohwedder (head of the agency responsible for the economic restructuring of former East Germany) is shot dead by the RAF in Bonn, Germany.
June 4, 1991 Communist rule in Albania ends.
June 5, 1991 End of official apartheid policy in South Africa.
December 25, 1991 Soviet Union dissolves (after Gorbachev resigned; in July 1991 BorisYeltsin had become president of the Russian Republic).
January 15, 1992 The Yougoslav Federation dissolves.
February 1, 1992 US President Bush and Russia's Yeltsin declare the Cold War to be over.
November 3, 1992 In the USA Bill Clinton wins the presidential election.
January 26, 1993 Vaclav Havel is elected president of the Czech Republic.
March 27, 1993 Devestating RAF bomb attack against the new federal prison of Weiterstadt in Germany (the building was still under construction).
March 29, 1993 Bombing of World Trade Center in New York City.
June 26, 1993 In Bad Kleinen, Germany, anti-terrorist police officers shoot a RAFmember. One of the officers and the RAF member are killed.
November 1, 1993 Maastricht Treaty (European Union)
May 4, 1994 Nelson Mandela is elected as president of South Africa.
August 31, 1994 IRA declares cease-fire in Northern Ireland.
October 13, 1994 Ulster Protestants declare cease-fire in Northern Irlenad.
December 11, 1994 Russian troops attack the Republic of Chechnya.
March 20, 1995 Nerve gas attack in Tokyo subway.
April 19, 1995 Bomb attack against the Federal Building in Oklahoma City.
November 4, 1995 Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by a Jewish extremist at a peace rally in Israel.
September 27, 1996 Taliban troops march into Kabul, Afghanistan's capital.
November 5, 1996 Clinton is reelected as president of the USA.
June 30, 1997 Hongkong returns to Bejing rule.
April 1998 The German RAF terrorist group declares that it will stop its activities and disolve.
May 1998 India and Pakistan test nuclear devices.
September 27, 1998 Gerhard Schröder wins German national election, ending Kohl's rule.
March 12, 1999 Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland join NATO.
March 24, 1999 NATO starts air war against Serbia (till June 9, 1999).
November 29, 1999 Battle of Seattle against World Trade Organization conference.
Nobel Prize in Literature, 1999: Günter Grass.
"Self-X-Ray" by Reinhard Leuven (photo imaging of a collage case preassembly 2004)
June 26, 2000 Human genome deciphered.
July 25, 2000 A "Concorde" supersonic airliner crashes near Paris.
November/December 2000 George W. Bush, Texas governor, wins presidential election in USA.
9-11 October 7, 2001 War against the Taliban in Afghanistan (ends on December 9, 2001).
January 2, 2002 In twelve EU countries the Euro is introduced as the official new currency.
March 11, 2004 Terrorist bombs explode in morning rush-hour commuter trains in Madrid. (As revenge for Spain's participation in the Iraq war. At the end of April 2004 Spanish troops are withdrawn from Iraq.)
May 1, 2004 Ten more nations join the European Union.
May 2004 First reports about torture by Americans in Iraq are published.
June 6, 2004 Commemoration celebrations in Normandy, - 60 years ago, in 1944, the Allies landed in Normandy to liberate Europe from Nazi occupation.
September 1, 2004 In Beslan (North Ossetia, Republic of Russia) a school is seized by terrorists. This is in Russia the traditional "Day of Knowledge", the first day of a new school-year, when children and adults celebrate this day in the schools. In Beslan the terrorists took about 1,200 children and adults as hostages. The bloody siege lasted three days and cost the lives of about 350 victims (the toll could be as high as 500).
December 26, 2004 A 9.0 magnitude underwater earthquake near Sumatra triggers a gigantic tsunami that hits the Indian Ocean coasts of South Asia and East Africa. The death toll and scale of destruction are incomprehensible ... (In Iraq, in Saudi Arabia meanwhile political terror continues ... )
January 27 Sixty years ago, in 1945, Russian troops free Auschwitz.
January 30 Sixty years ago, in 1945, a Russian submarine sinks the German refugee vessel "Wilhelm Gustloff".
February 13 Sixty years ago, in 1945, a British Air Force bombing raid destroys the City of Dresden.
April 18 Fifty years ago Albert Einstein dies, - the year 2005 is dedicated to his memory, commemorating the fact that the year 1905 had been his "annus mirabilis", the year he published five revolutionary theories.
May 8 Sixty years ago, in 1945, Germany unconditionally surrenders to the Allies. The Second World War in Europe ends.
July 7 Several terrorist bombs explode in London killing at least 33 people and injuring hundreds.
August 6 Sixty years ago, in 1945, America drops the first atom bomb on the Japanese City of Hiroshima.
August 9 Sixty years ago, in 1945, America drops the second atom bomb on the Japanese City of Nagasaki.
August 29 Parts of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama (particularly the Gulf Coast areas with the Mississippi Delta and New Orleans and neighboring cities) are struck by a hurricane and are totally devestated.
September 2 Sixty years ago, in 1945, Japan unconditionally surrenders to the United States. The Second World War in the Pacific area ends.
September 20 Simon Wiesenthal dies in Vienna.November 20 Sixty years ago, in 1945, the Nuremberg Trials commence.
November 22 New Chancellor of Germany: Angela Merkel.
December 6, 2005 Hanns Dieter Hüsch dies.
January 2006 The Ford Motor Company, America's second largest automobile manufacturer, announces in the USA that till the year 2012 it will close 14 factories and cut up to 30.000 jobs.
January 27, 2006 Johannes Rau, former Federal President of Germany, dies.
First international "Holocaust Memorial Day" reminding of January 27, 1945, when the Auschwitz concentration camp was liberated.
April 10, 2006 Romano Prodi wins the Italian parliamentary elections, ending the Berlusconi era.
April 27, 2006 Beginning of the construction of the new World Trade Center in New York called "The Freedom Tower" (541 meters high, to be the highest building in the USA).
June 2006 Airbus A380 runs into massive production problems. In October 2006 China orders 150 such jets and Airbus announces it will built a plant in China.
July 7, 2006 Zinedine Zidane, French soccer super-star, is during the final game in Berlin insulted by an Italian player and retaliates with a headbutt.
August 12,2006 Günter Grass announces that in his autobiography (to appear in September) he reveals that just before the end of WWII he joined the Waffen SS.
October 2006 North Korea claims to have tested a nuclear device.
November 2006 A Jackson pollock painting is sold for 140 million dollars.
November 7, 2006 The Democrats win the US national elections and attain the majority both in Congress and the senate.
December 10, 2006 Death of Chilean ex-dictator Pinochet. Police clashes with Pinochet opponents.
December 30, 2006 Ex-dictator Saddam Hussein is executed.
January 18, 2007 A storm rages across parts of Western Europe. About 50 persons die. In Germany all train operations of German Railways come to a complete halt (from late afternoon of January 18 till at least late morning of January 19).
January 22, 2007 Abbé Pierre dies in a hospital in Paris, France.
February 2, 2007 In Paris the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC - Weltklimarat) issues its sofar most drastic warning of the coming climate changes that according to its report are definitely caused by mankind itsself, calling on governments to at last take serious action to prevent further worsening of the expected results of climate changes.
February 21, 2007 Friedrichshafen (Lake of Constance / Germany) is chosen as Deutsche Telekom's innovative T-City of the Future !
May 28, 2007 Jörg Immendorf is redeemed ...
June 2007 German security experts erect a wall to protect the G 8 Summit. They evidently do not realize the inherent symbolism ...
November 10, 2007 Norman Mailer dies.
January 11, 2008 Sir Edmund Hillary dies.
January 21, 2008 Stockmarkets fall drastically worldwide.
February 24, 2008 General Motors reports largest financial loss in company history.
March 2008 The Chinese government (PRC) represses demonstrations in Tibet.
March 11, 2008 The US government intervenes to avert financial crisis.
March 24, 2008 Richard Widmark dies.
May 2008 In Italy Berlusconi is back in power.
May 12, 2008 Robert Rauschenberg dies.
August 2008 Olympic Games in China (PRC) are officially called non-political by all participants and repression of dissidents and of the international press is officially non-existent.
August 2008 Russia and Georgia at war.
August 3, 2008 Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn dies.
September 26, 2008 Paul Newman dies.
October 1, 2008 The US Senate passes a $700 billion measure to rescue the economy. Similar measures are taken in many other industrialized countries.
October 19, 2008 Anselm Kiefer receives the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade.
November 4, 2008 Election Day in USA - Obama wins (landslide for change).
December 15, 2008 Dr. Steven Chu, Nobel laureate in physics, is chosen by Barack Obama to lead the Energy Department (one example for showing how Obama prepares to manage change).
January 20, 2009 Inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States of America.
March 3, 2009 The building housing the Historic Archive of the City of Cologne collapses into a crater created by the ongoing construction of a subway line. Two neighboring apartment houses are also destroyed. Two persons die.
April 2009 A massive earthquake hits the Abruzzo region in Italy. Worst hit is the town of L'Aquila. Many people are killed.
April 6, 2009 A cat, trapped during the collapse of one of the apartment buildings next to the Cologne archive, is discovered alive and well in the rubble.
June 22, 2009 Rochester, N.Y. – Eastman Kodak Company announced today that it will retire Kodakchrome Color Film this year, concluding its 74-year run as a photography icon.
October 2009 Herta Müller receives this year's Nobel Prize for Literature. President Barack Obama receives this year's Nobel Prize for Peace.
October 18, 2009 Claudio Magris awarded the 2009 Peace Prize of the German Book Trade.
3. Juni 2012 - "Dokumentierte Geschichtswiederholungen - ein winziger Mosaikstein (eine Auswahl aus 1986 und 1988)" - June 3, 2012 - "Documented Repetitions of History - A tiny mosaic piece (A selection from 1986 and 1988)" - Collage Reinhard Leuven - Photo + Copyright Reinhard Leuven
Notiz / Note 3. Mai 2012 / May 3, 2012
Archivreduzierungsaktion - eine kleine Auswahl Archive reduction action - a small selection
NEWSWEEK - April 18, 1988 Title Story (re. Afghanistan): "After the Soviet Pullout - Why the War Won't End" + "East Europe's New Activists - Pressing for a 'Civil Society' "
NEWSWEEK - April 25, 1988 Title Story (re. job relations): "Stress on the Job - What You and the Boss Can Do About It" + "The Gorbachev Doctrine - A New Look in Soviet Foreign Policy"
DER SPIEGEL #23, 2. Juni 1986 Titel: "Adidas-Weltmeisterschaft - Der gekaufte Sport"
DER SPIEGEL #26, 23. Juni 1986 Titel: "Im Gewinnrausch: Die fetten Banken"
DER SPIEGEL #12, 21. März 1988 Titel: "Terror im Heiligen Land"
DER SPIEGEL #15, 11. April 1988 Titel: "Tollhaus Schule"
DER SPIEGEL #22, 30. Mai 1988 Titel: "Infektion in der Klinik - Krank durch Krankenhaus"
DER SPIEGEL #29, 18. Juli 1988 Titel: "Picasso - Der malende Macho"
DER SPIEGEL #48, 28. November 1988 Titel: "Ware Kunst - Milliardengeschäft mit Bildern"